Recently in Personal Injury Category

March 24, 2015

Florida Personal Injury Law: Inconsistent vs. Inadequate Verdicts

scales.jpgFlorida civil trial juries are given wide latitude in resolving factual conflicts. A verdict supported by evidence will be allowed to stand even if other evidence backs a contrary result. However, inconsistent and inadequate verdicts must be modified or reversed.

An "inconsistent" verdict can only be corrected by the jury that has rendered it. Before the jury is excused, the party or parties taking issue with the verdict must ask the court to instruct the jury on the inconsistencies and send it back for further deliberation. If the request is denied, the jury is excused.

A verdict is inconsistent where the jury's findings in two or more respects regarding a material fact is such that both cannot be true and therefore stand at the same time. In such circumstances, contradictory findings mutually destroy each other. See, Crawford v. DiMicco, 216 So.2d 769, 771 (Fla. 4th DCA 1968).

In personal injury cases, amounts awarded by the jury for past and future noneconomic damages (commonly referred to as pain and suffering) are sometimes challenged as being inconsistent. With regard to zero or low awards, the law is that

"A verdict is not necessarily inconsistent because it fails to award enough money, or perhaps no money at all, for future noneconomic damages after awarding past and future medical expenses and past lost earnings. Under such circumstances, the issue is the adequacy of the award, not its consistency with any other award by the verdict." Avakian v. Burger King Corp., 719 So.2d 342, 344 (Fla. 4th DCA 1998).
Inadequate verdicts are corrected by the trial judge. A motion seeking the correction must be filed within fifteen (15) days of the verdict. See, Fla.R.Civ.P. 1.530(b). An "inadequate" verdict can be corrected by an additur, Florida Statute 768.74(2), or a new trial.

Florida courts have long recognized the duty of the trial court to grant a new trial if the verdict is against the manifest weight of the evidence. Cloud v. Fallis, 110 So. 2d 669, 673 (Fla. 1959); Miles v. Ware, 204 So. 2d 524, 526 (Fla. 3d DCA 1967). While a trial court's authority to grant a new trial where a verdict is grossly inadequate was well entrenched in Florida's common law, the Legislature codified the principle by enacting §768 74, Fla. Stat. ITT Hartford Insurance Co. of the Southeast v. Owens, 816 So. 2d 572, 579 (Fla. 2002). Fla. 2002).

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March 18, 2015

Florida Personal Injury Law: Zero Verdict for Pain & Suffering [can be] Inadequate as a Matter of Law

scales of justice.jpgIn Parrish v. City of Orlando, 53 So.3d 1199 (Fla. 5th DCA 2011), the plaintiff suffered a comminuted proximal humerus fracture in her left shoulder from tripping and falling on an uneven sidewalk. The jury awarded $51,929.02 for past medical expenses, and $130,000 for future medical expenses. However, the jury awarded no past or future noneconomic damages. Because of the zero award, Ms. Parrish moved the trial court post-verdict to order an additur (F.S. 768.74) and/or a new trial (FRCP 1.530). When her motion was denied, she appealed.

A verdict comes to an appellate court clothed with a presumption of regularity and should not be disturbed if supported by the evidence. Deklyen v. Truckers World, Inc., 867 So.2d 1264, 1266 (Fla. 5th DCA 2004).

Because the verdict in Parrish was not supported by the evidence, the Fifth District Court of Appeal reversed the trial court's denial and remanded for a new trial on damages. In the appeal court's view, the verdict was inadequate as a matter of law.

A jury may refuse to award noneconomic damages when the defendant has presented evidence disputing such damages or when future noneconomic damages are uncertain or speculative. Allstate Ins. Co. v. Manasse, 707 So.2d 1110 (Fla.1998); see also Tavakoly v. Fiddlers Green Ranch of Fla., Inc., 998 So.2d 1183, 1184-85 (Fla. 5th DCA 2009) (holding that jury's failure to award injured horse rider damages for future pain and suffering did not warrant granting rider new trial, even though jury awarded rider $27,000 for future medical expenses over 27 years; record did not contain indisputable medical evidence of permanent impairment or that rider would continue to experience pain into future, and award of future medical expenses was consistent with treating physician's testimony that rider's condition should be monitored on annual basis); Allstate Ins. Co. v. Campbell, 842 So.2d 1031, 1035 (Fla. 2d DCA 2003) ("[A]s in Manasse, the need for future economic damages was disputed and the jury awarded only minimal future economic damages. Therefore, the jury's failure to award future noneconomic damages was supported by the evidence...."); Dyes v. Spick, 606 So.2d 700, 704 (Fla. 1st DCA 1992) ("Due to the somewhat speculative nature of what may occur in the future, it is perhaps not unwise to afford great latitude to the jury in its determinations as to [future] damages.").

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January 28, 2015

Florida Personal Injury Law: Tenuous Reasoning Allows Admission of Prejudicial Evidence

law books.jpgGetting the injured party fully compensated for the cost of future medical care is a primary concern in most personal injury cases. The Plaintiff has one shot in court to get the jury to award an adequate amount of money to cover the cost of these future medical expenses. Expert and lay evidence is presented on the issue. Once the decision is made, the Plaintiff cannot return to court to seek more money.

It is not uncommon for medical charges to exceed the amount medical providers willingly accept as payment. This is typically the case, for example, for payments made by health insurance and Medicare. Providers often agree with health insurance carriers to accept reduced payments as payment in full. Medicare, on the other hand, has a schedule of allowable charges for every service, usually well below usual and customary charges. A provider that accepts Medicare cannot balance bill the patient.

The courts and legislature have considered whether evidence of these collateral sources of payment should be presented to a jury for its consideration in determining future medical expenses. In my opinion, some of the conclusions are disturbing.

In Gormley v. GTE Prods. Corp., 587 So. 2d 455 (Fla. 1991), Florida's Supreme Court announced that Florida's common law collateral source rule "functions as both a rule of damages and a rule of evidence." Id. at 457.

The rule of damages "is designed to prevent tortfeasors from benefiting unjustly from the injured parties' receipt of collateral benefits for their injuries and it avoids penalizing parties who purchase insurance, which would create a disincentive to buy coverage in the first instance. ... The rule also maintains a level of deterrence against tortfeasors that would be lost if awards against them were reduced by collateral sources, and the rule obviously promotes full recovery for injured parties versus some reduced or diminished level of compensation." State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Company v. Joerg.

In contrast, the rule of evidence is based on a different policy concern. It was designed to prevent the introduction of evidence that "misleads the jury on the issue of liability and, thus, subverts the jury process. Because a jury's fair assessment of liability is fundamental to justice, its verdict on liability must be free from doubt, based on conviction, and not a function of compromise." Gormley at 458.

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November 11, 2014

Florida Personal Injury Law: Use Prior Medicals to Prove Damages

cube.jpgClaiming that the plaintiff's injuries are preexisting is a favorite defense tactic. Less responsibility for them. Some injuries, like herniated intervertebral discs and torn or frayed shoulder tendons, are extremely susceptible to this tactic. The defense argument is that the conditions are the result of natural aging and/or prior accidents.

Whenever possible, we like to counter this tactic by presenting prior medical records that are silent with regard to complaints similar to those for which we are seeking compensation. While this strategy may not eliminate entirely the preexisting condition argument, at the very least it shows that any such preexisting condition was aggravated in the accident. Florida law authorizes compensation for aggravation. See C. F. Hamblen, Inc. v. Owens, 172 So. 694 (Fla. 1937) and Florida Standard Jury Instruction 501.5a.

One of our recent cases demonstrates the point. Between September, 2013 and March, 2014, our client was involved in three separate motor vehicle accidents. While the third was the most serious, she sought medical treatment from the same board certified orthopedist for neck and back pain in all three. The doctor ordered cervical and lumbar MRIs to assist in diagnosing her injuries.

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October 19, 2014

Florida Personal Injury Law: Exercise Your Right to Remain Silent

silence1.jpgIn Miranda v. Arizona, the Supreme Court of the United States established a formal warning that is required to be given by police in the United States to criminal suspects in police custody (or in a custodial situation) before they are interrogated. The court ruled that the person in custody must be informed that he/she has the right to remain silent, and that anything the person says can be used against the person in a court of law. What developed from the ruling is the well-known "Miranda Warning":

"You have the right to remain silent. Anything you say can and will be used against you in a court of law. You have the right to an attorney. If you cannot afford an attorney, one will be provided for you. Do you understand the rights I have just read to you? With these rights in mind, do you wish to speak to me?"
Even though the Miranda Warning only applies to criminal suspects, potential personal injury civil litigants should consider the wisdom of remaining silent until receiving the advice of counsel. The alternative is to risk saying something that will harm the civil case.

Fault and damages are key components of every personal injury case. Limiting both is the primary objective of every liability insurance company. Adjusters, investigators, and lawyers are employed to this end from the very beginning of a reported claim. They will quickly reach out for information from witnesses and victims for the purpose of obtaining incriminating and exculpatory evidence to limit their exposure. What a victim says to these people can be used against him/her in and out of court.

(Read this blog, Limited Application of Florida's Motor Vehicle Accident/Crash Report Privilege, for the confidentiality of statements given to motor vehicle crash investigators.)

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September 18, 2014

Florida Personal Injury Law: Non-Delegable Duty Creates Joint & Several Liability

joint & several.jpgBy amending §768.81 Florida Statues, the Florida Legislature eliminated, effective 2006, the application of joint and several liability in most personal injury cases. Under the joint and several doctrine, in cases involving multiple defendants each negligent defendant was wholly responsible financially for the negligence of every other defendant. This concept especially benefited plaintiffs where one or more negligent defendant did not have the financial means to satisfy its share of the damages awarded, while one or more other defendants had the means to satisfy the entire award.

The doctrine was replaced by the comparative fault doctrine. Under this doctrine, each defendant's share of liability was limited to its allocated percentage of fault. For example, if each of three defendants was found one-third at fault, the most any one of the three would be responsible for paying is one-third of the total damage award. If the total damage award was $1,000,000, the most any one of the three defendants would have to pay is $333,333.33. If the others could not afford to pay their shares, the injured Plaintiff would simply not be fully compensated. In comparison, under the joint and several doctrine each one of the three would be liable for the full measure of damages. If, for example, one of the defendants was the Coca-Cola company and the other two were poor deadbeats without adequate insurance coverage, Coca-Cola would be on the hook for the full amount. Coca-Cola would have a right to go after the other defendants to recoup some of the money it paid.

By scuttling joint and several liability, the Republican Legislature, with the full backing of then Governor Jeb Bush, shifted the burden of loss from insurance companies and large corporations onto injured victims.

While joint and several liability does not apply in most post-April, 2006 personal injury cases, it remains a viable legal doctrine in cases where an independent contractor has breached a non-delegable duty. The most common scenario involves a property owner who hires one or more independent contractors to perform maintenance and security in and around a property, like a shopping mall. If a person rightfully on the property is injured by the negligent performance by the independent contractor, the independent contractor and the property owner are jointly and severally liable. This has long been the law in Florida:

"The law imposes on hotels, apartments, innkeepers, etc., the duty to keep their buildings, premises and appliances in a condition reasonably safe for the use of their guests, or at least those parts of the buildings and premises to which the guest are invited and may reasonably be expected to use. The duty of maintaining safe premises cannot be delegated to another."
Goldin v. Lipkind, 49 So.2d 539, 541 (Fla. 1950) (emphasis added). Moreover, this is a well-established principle of law recognized throughout the country. W. Page Keeton et al., Prosser and Keeton on the Law of Torts § 71, at 511-12 (5th ed. 1984).

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August 13, 2014

Will Jeb Bush/Right-Wing Extremism be the Straw that Breaks the Back of Florida's Workers' Compensation System?

scales of justice.jpgInjured workers have experienced a steady erosion of their rights under Florida's workers' compensation system since its inception in 1935. Some periods have seen greater losses than others. None, however, were as ugly as the Jeb Bush years, when he served as the 43rd Governor of Florida from 1999 to 2007, along with a Republican-controlled House and Senate. Together, they happily gutted the system.

After years of injustice and suffering, the chickens may be coming home to roost.

Before Florida had a workers' compensation system, in order for an injured worker to receive lost wages and medical benefits, he or she was burdened with proving employer-fault caused the accident. This was a time-consuming and always difficult burden, made more tenuous by legal principles that barred any recovery if the worker - contributory fault - or a fellow servant were even slightly at fault, or the employee accepted the dangers of hazardous employment. This system, a form of common law negligence, saw most injured workers go without ever receiving benefits. The system also proved unwieldy to employers, who were regularly tied up in lawsuits and could not reasonably predict their exposure.

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July 13, 2014

Florida Personal Injury Law: Alcohol Use as Evidence of Negligence

drunk.jpgThere is a reason why the following inquiry is a standard interrogatory for personal injury cases in the Florida Rules of Civil Procedure:

Did you consume any alcoholic beverages or take any drugs or medications within twelve hours before the time of the incident described in the complaint? If so, state the type and amount of alcoholic beverage, drugs or medication which were consumed and when and where you consumed them.
While excessive alcohol consumption can support a claim for punitive damages -- see this blog:, Special Considerations in Florida Motor Vehicle Crash Cases Involving Alcohol (DUI) -- evidence of alcohol use, even short of "voluntary intoxication," can be relevant to the issue of simple negligence. It's application is not limited to vehicle accident cases.

The Florida Supreme Court decided long ago that evidence of a person being under the influence of intoxicants at the time of an automobile collision is admissible, on the theory that a driver so exhilarated is likely to be abnormally reckless. Taylor v. State, 46 So.2d 725 (Fla., 1950). It is valuable and useful to corroborate or render more likely, evidence that is doubtful or disputed. Smith v. State, 65 So.2d 303 (Fla., 1953).

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July 3, 2014

Florida Personal Injury Law: Duty Opens the Courthouse Doors

Every personal injury plaintiff must plead and prove that the defendant owed and breached a duty of care and that the breach proximately (i.e., foreseeably and substantially) contributed to the specific injury suffered. These are the prima facie elements of a personal injury case.

Whether a duty exists is a matter of law for the court (judge) to determine rather than a factual question for the jury. The duty element of negligence focuses on whether the defendant's conduct foreseeably created a broader "zone of risk" that poses a general threat of harm to others. See Kaisner v. Kolb, 543 So.2d 732, 735 (Fla. 1989) (citing Stevens v. Jefferson, 436 So.2d 33, 35 (Fla. 1983)). It is a minimal threshold legal requirement for opening the courthouse doors. See McCain v. Florida Power Corporation, 593 So. 2d 500 (Fla. 1992) (In footnote number 1, the court qualified and explained the concept as follows: "Of course, to determine this legal question the court must make some inquiry into the factual allegations. The objective, however, is not to resolve the issues of comparative negligence or other specific factual matters relevant to proximate causation, but to determine whether a foreseeable, general zone of risk was created by the defendant's conduct.")

On the other hand, the proximate causation element is concerned with whether and to what extent the defendant's conduct foreseeably and substantially caused the specific injury that actually occurred. Id. at 502. This is a "much more specific factual requirement that must be proved to win the case once the courthouse doors are open." Id. at 502. Generally, issues of breach, proximate cause and foreseeability as related to proximate cause are fact questions for the jury, not resolved by summary judgment. McCain and See Springtree Properties, Inc. v. Hammond, 692 So.2d 164, 167 (Fla.1997). Importantly, it is immaterial that the defendant could not foresee the precise manner in which the injury occurred or its exact extent. Restatement (Second) of Torts § 435 (1965). In such instances, the true extent of the liability would remain questions for the jury to decide. McCain at 503.

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June 10, 2014

Breaching a Personal Injury Confidential Settlement Agreement Can Have Serious Consequences

handshake2.jpgIn a decision demonstrating strong support of confidentiality provisions, even at the expense of family dynamics, in Gulliver Schools, Inc. v. Snay, the Third District Court of Appeal punished a father (the Plaintiff) for informing his college-age daughter that a settlement was reached with the Defendant in an emotional case.

When his employment contract was not renewed, the Plaintiff sued the Defendant for age discrimination and retaliation under the Florida Civil Rights Act. Florida Statute Sections 760.01-760.11 and 509.092. Within days of the settlement, which included a confidentiality provision, the Plaintiff's daughter posted the following message on her Facebook page.

Mama and Papa Snay won the case against Gulliver. Gulliver is now officially paying for my vacation to Europe this summer. SUCK IT.
As a result, the Defendant refused to pay the Plaintiff a large portion of the money promised under the settlement agreement. Plaintiff's subsequent Motion to Enforce was granted by the trial court. However, the trial court order was reversed on appeal.

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March 9, 2014

Florida Personal Injury Law: Pedestrian Struck by Motor Vehicle

city-zone-945513-m.jpgA pedestrian struck and injured by a motor vehicle may be covered by some, all or none of the following types of motor vehicle insurance:

Personal Injury Protection (PIP). PIP is no-fault insurance, meaning that covered individuals receive the benefit without regard to fault. Put another way, at-fault individuals may recover under this type of insurance. This coverage does not compensate for non-economic damages like pain and suffering, and the limit for what it does cover -- medical and lost wages -- is typically capped at $10,000 combined. It is also subject to deductibles and does not pay 100% of the medical benefits or lost wages. It is not always easy figuring out whose insurance coverage applies.

  • If the pedestrian owns a vehicle and has PIP coverage on the vehicle, a requirement under Florida law for operational vehicles registered in the state, the pedestrian's own policy applies. F.S. 627.736(4)(e)1.

  • If the pedestrian does not own a vehicle that must be insured, but resides with a relative who does, the resident relative's policy provides coverage. F.S. 627.736(4)(e)3. (If there is more than one resident relative with coverage, each carrier must pay its pro-rata share. Regardless of the number of carriers, PIP coverage is limited to $10,000 unless a policy has a higher coverage limit. F.S. 627.736(f)).

  • If neither the pedestrian nor a resident relative has PIP, the at-fault vehicle owner's and/or operator's carrier provides coverage. F.S. 627.736(4)(e)4.
CAVEAT: None of these PIP provisions apply if the accident occurs outside of Florida.

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February 23, 2014

The Pre-Suit Settlement Demand Package in Florida Personal Injury Cases

truck2.jpgInsurance companies operating in Florida are under a legal duty to adjust claims in good faith to prevent their insureds from being subject to excess judgments (a court judgment in excess of a policy's liability limit). A carrier that fails to act in good faith may be forced to satisfy an excess judgment as punishment for breaching the duty.

Most individuals do not maintain adequate policy limits to cover the full consequences of a serious accident. For example, the minimum and least expensive limit for motor vehicle bodily injury (BI) insurance is $10,000 per person/$20,000 per accident. For those individuals who even carry BI coverage at all -- it is not mandatory in Florida -- this is the limit level most frequently chosen. BI insurance is expected to cover past and future medical expenses, past and future lost income, property damage, and non-economic damages such as pain and suffering. Nor do most individuals have enough private money to cover damages above policy limits. In cases involving serious injuries, $10,000 does not go far.

Liability insurance companies have an affirmative duty to gather damages information. They cannot sit idle when information is at their disposal. Evidence such as vehicle property damage and the police crash report, often indicators of the seriousness of a crash and fault, are usually readily available. This information, alone, can be enough for the carrier to make the decision to tender policy limits. For example, in a case involving a $10,000 policy, evidence of a high speed crash resulting in significant property damage should be enough for the carrier to tender.

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December 7, 2013

Medicare Set Asides in Personal Injury Cases

dollars.jpgThe Medicare Secondary Payer Act of 1980 ("MSP") -- Link to the MSP Manual -- was enacted to limit the financial burden on taxpayers for the medical expenses of Medicare beneficiaries whose medical needs are the primary responsibility of some other source.

Until 2010, the MSP's main focus was on workers' compensation cases. (Florida's workers' compensation laws are contained in Chapter 440 of Florida's statutes.) Injured workers who receive a lump sum settlement in a workers' compensation case are required to pay all or a portion of those proceeds for the medical care related to their job accident injuries before Medicare will pay penny-one. While third-party civil liability plaintiffs have always been expected to reimburse Medicare for benefits paid in the past, the same regulations with regard to future coverage was never applied. In other words, Medicare was not expecting these Medicare beneficiaries to cover the expenses of future medical care resulting from their accidents from settlement proceeds.

For some time, The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services ("CMS"), the federal agency responsible for administering Medicare and Medicaid (as well as a host of other federal programs ) within the Department of Health and Human Services, has been hinting that the Medicare Secondary Payer Act applied to future medical services in third party liability cases, pointing out that the statutory language is the same for workers' compensation and liability cases. With regard to liability cases, Barbara Wright of CMS stated: "So where future medicals are a consideration in arriving at the settlement, appropriate arrangements should be made for appropriate exhaustion of the settlement before Medicare is billed for related services."

One consequence of this new thinking is that insurers and self-insured entities are currently required to report claims made by Medicare-eligible claimant/plaintiffs to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services ("CMS"). This suggests that "appropriate exhaustion of the settlement before Medicare is billed for related services" is required "before Medicare is billed for related services" in personal injury cases. Interestingly, as of the posting of this blog, Medicare has not taken the next step of denying the payment of bills where the care is related to injuries sustained in an accident for which future medicals were considered in arriving at a settlement.

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October 13, 2013

Medicaid Lien Law in Florida Personal Injury Cases Appears to be Resolved

us supreme court.jpgMedicaid will sometimes pay the medical expenses incurred by a person injured in an accident, albeit at rates substantially below the medical provider's usual and customary charges. When Medicaid does pay, beneficiaries must reimburse Medicaid from third party payments for medical care. See section 409.910(11)(f), Florida Statutes (2013). The goal of the statute is to protect tax dollars while preventing Medicaid beneficiaries from receiving a windfall. Tristani v. Richman, 652 F.3d 360, 370, at 372 (3d Cir. 2011).

In Arkansas Department of Health & Human Services v. Ahlborn, 547 U.S. 268 (2006), the U.S. Supreme Court confirmed that the Medicaid lien was limited to payments for medical care. Id. at 284. At issue in Ahlborn was a North Carolina Medicaid lien statute similar to Florida's.

In spite of Ahlborn, AHCA, which administers Florida's Medicaid system, insisted that its payments could be recovered from the entire settlement without regard to the various other damage elements typically constituting the basis of a settlement. (In addition to incurred medical expenses, personal injury cases usually also involve claims for lost wages, future medical expenses, mental anguish, and pain. According to Ahlborn, Medicaid's lien only attaches to the payments made for medical care.) Moreover, ACHA refused to negotiate or even concede that any court had a say in the matter. AHCA's brazenness was challenged.

In Roberts v. Albertson's Inc., 37 Fla. L. Weekly D2515 (Fla. 4th DCA Oct. 24, 2012), reh'g and reh'g en banc denied, modified on reh'g, No. 4D10-2313 (Fla. 4th DCA June 26, 2013), the Fourth District Court of Appeal issued a decision authorizing the trial court to conduct a hearing to determine the Medicaid lien. The court could consider evidence of payments for such other damages as lost wages, pain, and mental anguish, as well as determine how much less the case settled for than its full value. (Cases are often settled for less than full actual damages due to a variety of factors including comparative fault and limited insurance coverage.)

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September 21, 2013

Florida Workers' Compensation Liens -- The "Manfredo" Formula Made Simple

law books.jpgFlorida employees injured at work may be able to bring a valid claim for damages against a third party. For purposes of this blog, a third party means an entity, including an individual, other than the employer or other entity entitled to workers' compensation immunity. A third party case may exist if the work related injury was caused by the negligence or intentional act of the non-exempt entity. A simple example is where a deliveryman is injured in a motor vehicle accident by a negligent non-exempt third party. Because the accident happened in the course and scope of the employment, the worker would is eligible to recover both workers' compensation benefits and personal injury damages.

Where workers' compensation benefits have been furnished, Section 440.39 Florida Statutes creates a lien against the compensation the injured worker receives from a third party. In other words, the employer or its insurance carrier have the statutory right to be repaid from the money paid to the injured worker by the third party. "The lien statute has a straightforward and appropriate objective--the prevention of double recoveries by injured employees who have recovered statutory benefits under the workers' compensation law but also have claims against responsible parties other than the employer. Jones v. Martin Elecs., Inc., 932 So.2d 1100, 1108 (Fla.2006). The statute allows the employer or insurer to be subrogated to the proceeds of such third-party tort recoveries to the extent of the amounts paid or to be paid by the employer or insurer." Luscomb v. Liberty Mut. Ins. Co., 967 So.2d 379 (Fla. 3rd DCA 2007). Importantly, the workers' compensation lien is capped at the claimant's net recovery. City of Hollywood v. Lombardi, 770 So.2d 1196, 1202 (Fla.2000), and Aetna Insurance Co. v. Norman, 468 So.2d 226, 228 (Fla.1985).

The lien can be waived by the employer or carrier. However, this will typically come at the cost of the workers' compensation case settling for less than if the lien remained in place.

When the lien isn't waived, how is the claimant's net recovery determined?

The formula, as set forth in the statute, can be difficult to comprehend. Extensive litigation has ensued over its meaning and application, with many appellate decisions attempting to explain the issues. In my opinion, the best play to start to understand the formula is the Florida Supreme Court case Manfredo v. Employer's Casualty Insurance Company, 560 So.2d 1162 (Fla 1990).

This is the so-called "Manfredo Formula": Third party settlement/recovery amount less (-) attorney fees and costs divided by (/) full case value = the % value of the wc lien.

Here's the formula by way of a hypothetical example:


  1. WC lien (medical, indemnity, settlement, etc.): $ 100,000

  2. $ 250,000 third party settlement less fees (40%) and costs ($ 35,000) = $ 135,000

  3. Full case value: $ 1,000,000. (The case was for less due to tough liability, coverage limits, etc.)

  4. $ 135,000 divided by $ 1,000,000 = 13.5%

  5. 13.5% of $ 100,000 = $ 13,500.

Hence, the workers' compensation employer/carrier recovers $ 13,500, 13.5%, of its $100,000 lien from the $250,000 personal injury recovery.

Resolving the WC lien is not always this simple. In the Aetna case, the Florida Supreme Court noted some complicating factors. In speaking of 440.39, the court wrote:

This very logical process, and the statute describing it, becomes more complicated because of the broad array of circumstances that may occur with the third-party claims and recoveries. They may be brought by the employee, employer, or insurer (based on the one-year windows described above), and the attorneys prosecuting the claims may therefore be compensated by the employee, employer, or insurer. The employee may have settled all the workers' compensation medical and indemnity claims for a lump sum (as here), or the benefits may continue to be payable into the future. The third-party recoveries may exceed the total benefits paid and to be paid by the employer or its insurer, or they may be less than that total (as here). There may be multiple third-party claims and recoveries, and therefore multiple computations of the lien, and the recoveries may occur at different times. A particular recovery may be less than the "full value" of the third-party claim for a variety of reasons: other third-party tortfeasors may be responsible for some of the damages, the employee may have been comparatively negligent, or the plaintiff and counsel for the plaintiff may discount the value of the claim in order to avoid the risk and delay inherent in any lawsuit.

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