Any cause of action, or lawsuit, arising in Florida from the death of an individual caused by the wrongful act or negligence of any person or entity is controlled by the "Florida Wrongful Death Act" (Sections 768.16-768.26). This blog describes some key wrongful death claim considerations.
- Statute of Limitations: Florida Statute Section 95.11(4)(d) instructs that an action for wrongful death must commence within two years of death. Section 95.11(4)(b) describes when the SOL can be extended beyond 2 years where the WD resulted from medical negligence. (Read this blog: The Statute of Limitations (SOL) Under Florida's Wrongful Death Act.)
- Court of Competent Jurisdiction: Typically, WD claims are brought in state circuit courts. Regarding venue, Florida Statue, 47.011 provides that "Actions shall be brought only in the county where the defendant resides, where the cause of action accrued.... This section shall not apply to actions against nonresidents." If none of the defendants reside in or have a principal place of business in Florida, the action must be brought in federal court.
- Parties to the Lawsuit (Plaintiff): Florida WD actions are prosecuted by court appointed personal representative(s) on behalf of the decedent's statutorily defined "survivors." Link to this blog (for an outline of the "survivors" list.) The court appointed PR is often a survivor, like an adult child or a parent. The court may also appoint a guardian ad-litem for minors and incompetent adults.
- Parties to the Lawsuit (Defendant): Defendants in WD actions are the individuals and entities who are alleged to be at-fault.
- Damages: Making defendants pay monetary compensation to the survivors for their loss is how defendants are punished under our civil justice system. The amount of compensation, or damages, is determined by examining such elements as mental pain & suffering, loss of the decedent's companionship and protection, past and future loss of support and services, and medical and funeral expenses. (Read this blog to see an outline of the damages available under the Act.)
- Pretrial Procedure: Florida Wrongful Death Act claims can be settled by the parties at any time, even pre-suit. Some are settled after the lawsuit has been filed, but before or during trial. Some are dismiised by the court. The remainder go to final verdict.
- Trial: Wrongful death cases are typically tried to juries, although judges can be chosen to act as the finder of fact. Judges make legal rulings, juries make factual determinations.
- Post-trial: All rulings by judges and juries can be challenged on appeal. The threat of appeal sometimes precipitates settlement.